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Lower Back Ache
Low back pain can result from an acute injury or from chronic overuse that leads to arthritis.
Iniuries/ Sprain
Mechanical -

Skeletal Immaturity:such as scoliosis (a curvature of the spine), lordosis (an abnormally exaggerated arch in the lower back), kyphosis (excessive outward arch of the spine), and other congenital anomalies of the spine.

Spina Bifida :  incomplete development of the spinal cord and/or its protective covering and can cause problems involving malformation of vertebrae and abnormal sensations and even paralysis.

Degenerative problems
Intervertebral disc degeneration which occurs when the usually rubbery discs wear down as a normal process of aging and lose their cushioning ability.

Spondylosis the general degeneration of the spine associated with normal wear and tear that occurs in the joints, discs, and bones of the spine as people get older.
Arthritis or other inflammatory disease  in the spine, including osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis as well as spondylitis, an inflammation of the vertebrae

Nerve and spinal cord problem

Sciatica Pressing on the sciatic nerve that travels through the buttocks and extends down the back of the leg. Spinal stenosis, the narrowing of the spinal column that puts pressure on the spinal cord and nerves Spondylolisthesis, which happens when a vertebra of the lower spine slips out of place, pinching the nerves exiting the spinal column
Osteoporosis (a progressive decrease in bone density and strength that can lead to painful fractures of the vertebrae)